60. anniversary of NASA4214x 17. 10. 2018 1 Reader
60 has been working for XNUMX NASA behind the rich history of space research. So what were the most important points?
Founding NASA and the first steps in 1958-1972
NASA was founded as a result of the space competition between the Soviets and the United States. In 1957, the USSR shocked the world by demonstrating their technical capabilities when they launched the first artificially created Earth - Sputnik. They released in November of the same year Sputnik 2, which he carried dog Lajku, which became the first living creature, larger than microbes, in the orbit around our planet.
The US gained its first success later, 31. January 1958, when they safely launched Satellite Explorer 1. In their first attempt, the Vanguard carrier exploded just a few yards from the ground, and the US government realized that more effort was needed to conquer the cosmos. National Authority for Aerospace (NASA) operated from 1. October 1958to continue the work carried out by the National Aviation Advisory Committee (NACA) and to extend its scope to space.
Yuri A. Gagarin
When the Soviet Union sent 12. April 1961 cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin in orbit, President John F. Kennedy made the following statement:
"First of all, I believe that this nation should commit itself to a man landing on the moon and returning safely to Earth before the decade ends. No space project in this period will be more beneficial for humanity, or more important for the exploration of the universe, than a long-distance flight that will not be difficult or costly. "
A small step for man, a huge leap for humanity
That was said at the time America sent it Alana Shephard only for 15 minutes into space, it was really a very bold prognosis. But that's exactly what the US did, when 20. July 1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin they left Michael Collins in the Columbia Control Module and descended on the moon surface of the Lunar Landing Unit Eagle, where Armstrong said: "It's a small step for man, but a huge leap for humanity."
Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin stepped out of the lunar module, while Michael Collins made his own orbiting documentation while staying alone in the Columbia module, becoming the most isolated person, with the nearest people being about 3,5 thousands of miles away, leaving their tracks on the moon. Since then, only 5 of other astronauts have had the same scenario, while a total of 12 astronauts have been walking around the Moon, all over the next three years.
Space races from 1972 to the present
What was NASA's next goal? They have achieved their ultimate goal of reaching our nearest heavenly neighbor safely and returning to Earth. After winning this space race, NASA has expanded its reach, broadcast spacecraft into space, and transfer information back to Earth.
NASA has begun research spacecraft to explore the outer planets of our Solar System. Voyager was carrying the "gold plaque" of humanity, a disc containing human information for anyone who could find it.
Cosmic Hubble telescope he could look even further than Earth Telescopes to help us understand the origin of the universe, the formation of galaxies and stars, and the birth of planets. At the same time, our satellites were looking to Earth, when they first saw Earth as a complete system, studied Earth's climate, weather, and photographed Earth's surface.
Finally, there has been a huge, coordinated international effort to build and maintain the International Space Station. NASA Space Shuttle shuttles were used to transport US astronauts up and back to the space station.
Everything was not without sacrifice. When starting Apolla 1, 27. January 1967 killed astronauts Grissom, White and Chaffe, 1. February 2003 was killed when Columbia Space Shuttle crew returned to Earth 7. They were all lost in the name of science, but in the exploration the unknown continued. Only the NASA scientific community and astronauts have known the famous, but often incorrect, statement: "Houston, we have a problem."
All this work has caused tremendous technological development. We use it not only in space but also around the world. There are many NASAs we use every day! Laser diodes (LEDs), computer mouse, dust filtration - to name a few. Of course, even miniaturized cameras that have found use in smartphones. We can thank NASA for the self-talk.
NASA in the next 60 years
Professor Andrew Coates of University College London says:
"NASA looks at the origin of the universe, the black holes, how the planets are formed, and other prime issues. Cassini has explored Saturn and its moons, Encelada has found clouds of water, Titan's complex chemical processes. The Spirit and Opportunity Trolleys examined the water on Mars and found Mars to be habitable. NASA has played an important role in measuring distances in space and has confirmed the initial measurement of global warming. "
Our galaxy and beyond
Why should we care about what's in space? Why do we spend money on things that have no practical use?
Professor Andrew Coates adds:
"It is, of course, expensive to expel objects into space, to use the universe for a variety of things, to try the cutting-edge technology, but the real reason we do it is to understand more about where we come from and why we are here. We try to understand our place in the universe. The big questions are whether life exists elsewhere in the universe or whether we are alone on this blue planet. We must be able to understand all the connections, the universe is a very important part of everything. "
Discoveries have always been vital to the progress of humanity. It was not known to use the electron when scientists were looking for it, but now our knowledge contains almost everything we take for granted. Who knows what we will use for future NASA technology? We have to wait and see ...
Note: translators: Despite all the achievements and knowledge NASA has achieved for 60, it is still debating whether the astronauts were actually on the Moon. There is also no official knowledge of the secret space program, the use of UFOs from extraterrestrials, and reversed technology production. It is possible that real technological progress is far ahead than the US government and its subordinate organizations admit.