Mysteries of Ainu14154x 21. 07. 2017 1 Reader
Ainu (but also Ainu, Aina, Ajnu, etc.) are a mysterious tribe, where many scientists from different countries have been tearing their teeth. They have a bright face, eyes of European type (men are also characterized by dense hair) and their outlook is very different from other nations of East Asia. Evidently, they are not a Mongoloid race, rather tend to the anthropological type of Southeast Asia and Oceania.
They are hunters and fishermen who over the ages have almost no knowledge of agriculture, yet have created an extraordinary and rich culture. Their ornament, carving and wooden statues are remarkable for their beauty and imaginativeness, their songs, dances and rumors are truly beautiful, just like all the original works of this tribe.
Every nation has its own unrepeatable history and culture. Science knows, to a greater or lesser extent, the stages of the historical development of one or another ethnic group. But there are still nations in the world whose origin remains a mystery. Even today, you are worrying about the minds of ethnographers. First of all, such an ethnic group is the Ainu, the original inhabitants of the Far East.
It was a very interesting, beautiful and healthy nation that settled in the Japanese archipelago, southern Sakhalin and Kurilah. They called themselves the different tribal names of Soja-Untara or Chuvka-Untara. Word ainu, which they are accustomed to signify, is not the endonym of this nation (endonyms represent the official name of geographic objects used in the territory where the object is located; Note: transl.), but it means a person. These natives have been identified by the scientists as a separate Aryan race, linking in their exterior with the Europoid, Australoid and Mongoloid features.
The historical problem that arises in connection with this tribe is the question of their racial and cultural origin. Traces of the existence of this nation have been found even at the sites of neolithic camps in the Japanese islands. The Ainuas are the oldest ethnic community. Their foremen are the bearers of the Jómon culture (which literally means a rope pattern), which is almost thirteen thousand years (on the Kuril Islands eight thousand years).
Bavarian physician and natural scientist Phillip Franz von Siebold with his son Heinrich and American zoologist Edward Morse began to study scientifically the Jommon camp site. The results they obtained were very different. While Siebolds, with all responsibility, claimed that Jommon culture was part of the hands of the ancient Ains, Morse was more cautious. He disagreed with the point of view of his German colleagues, but at the same time he underlined that the Jomonee period differs significantly from the Japanese one.
And what about the Japanese themselves, who called Ainy word ebi-su? Most of them disagreed with their conclusions. For them, these natives have always been barbarians, as evidenced, for example, by a Japanese chronicler from 712: "When our noble ancestors flew from the sky, they found some wild nations on the island (Honshu), and the wildest of them were the Ainuas."
But as archaeological excavations prove, the ancestors of these "savages" have created the entire culture that every nation can be proud of on the islands, long before the Japanese appeared! That is why the official Japanese historiography made an attempt to link the creator of Jomon culture to the ancestors of the contemporary Japanese, and not to the Ainu tribe.
More and more scientists agree that Ain's culture was so viable that it had an impact on the culture of its Japanese oppressors. As Professor Sergei Alexandrovich Arutjunov shows, Aryan elements played an essential role in the formation of Samurai art and the ancient Japanese Shinto religion.
For example, an Ainian soldier jangin had two short, slightly curved swords of length 45 - 50 centimeters, with a one-sided blade that he fought without using the shield. In addition to the swords, he wore two long knives (the so-called ". čejki-makiri a sa-makiri). The first one was ritual and a sacred wood was made with it inau . It was also intended for the ceremony pears or eritokpa, which was a ritual suicide that was later taken over by the Japanese and called it "harakiri" or "seppuku" (as well as the cult of swords, special boxes for them, spears or bows).
Swords Ainu publicly exhibited only at the time of the Bear's Day. An old legend says, "Once upon a time, after this country was created by God, two old men lived. One Japanese and one Ainu. Old Ainu ordered the sword, the old Japanese money ". This explains why the Ainu cult of the sword, while the Japanese have the desire for money. The Ainuas condemned their neighbors for their greed.
They also did not wear the helmets. Out of nature, they had long, thick hair that spiked into the drdolus, creating something like a natural helmet on their heads. There is little known about their martial arts. It is believed that the old Japanese took virtually everything from them and were not the only ones with whom the Ainu fought.
For example, Sachalin obtained from Tonci, a tribe whose members were small in size and who were the native inhabitants of this island. It should be added that the Japanese were afraid of the open struggle with Aina, so they used the temptations to subdue and expel them. In the old Japanese song it is said that one emissions (barbar, Ain) is worth a hundred people. They were also believed to cause fog.
The Ainuas first lived on the Japanese islands (then called Ainumosiri, the land of the Ains) until the Japanese were displaced in the past in the north. Kurily and Sakhalin arrived in XIII. - XIV. century and their traces have also been found in Kamchatka, the Primory and Chabarov regions.
Many toponymic names of the Sakhalin area bear the Alain names: Sachalin (from Sacharen Mosiri, meaning "Wavy Country"), the islands of Kunašir, Simušir, Šikotan, Šiaškotan (words ending on -broad and -kotan designate land and dwellings). In order for the Japanese to occupy the entire archipelago, including the island of Hokkaido (then named Edzo), they needed more than two thousand years to do (the earliest evidence of Ainui's defeats being dated 660 BC).
There is ample evidence of Ain's cultural history, and it seems that it is possible to accurately predict their origin.
First of all, it can be assumed that the northern half of the main Japanese island of Honshu lived in ancient times by tribes that were either their direct ancestors or their material culture very close to them. Second, the two elements that formed the basis of the Ainian ornament are known. It was a spiral and a creep.
Thirdly, there is no doubt that the initial moment of the Ainic faith was the primitive animism, ie the acknowledgment of the existence of the soul of any being or subject. Finally, the social life of the Aina and its production methods are well studied.
But it turns out that the method of facts does not always pay. For example, it has been proven that the spiral ornament was never the exclusive property of the Aina. In his art, he used it abundantly by Maura, the inhabitants of New Zealand, to the decorations of the Papuan of New Guinea, as well as the Neolithic tribes living on the lower reaches of the Amur River.
So what is it? Accidental coincidence or traces of the existence of certain contacts between the tribes of Eastern and Southeast Asia once in the distant past? But who was the first to take over this discovery? It is also known that the worship of the bear and its cult were widespread in the vast territories of Europe and Asia. But Aina's cult differed greatly from him, for they only fattened the sacrificial beast so that the Aina woman was nursing him!
The Ains language is separate. Some time it was considered that it was not related to any one language, but now some scientists put it together with the Malaysian-Polynesian group. Linguists found in their language Latin, Slavic, Anglo-Germanic and even Sanskrit roots. And more than that, ethnographers have so far fought over the question of where these rugged lands were taken by people who were dressed in a break-out (southern) type of clothing.
Stretching dress, made of tree threads and decorated with a traditional ornament, looked as good for both men and women, and the festive white cloaks were stitched from nettle. In the summer, the Ainuans wore a lumbar mask like people from the south, they used to make fur clothes in winter, and used salmonskin for making moccasins that ran to their knees.
Ainu was gradually assigned to the Indoarius, to the Australian race, and even to the Europeans. But they thought themselves as those who had come from the sky: "There were times when the first Aina had set off from the Earth's cloud of earth, loved it, started hunting both game and fish to eat, dance, and bear children "(Aina legend extract). Indeed, the lives of these remarkable people were totally connected with nature, sea, forest and islands.
They dealt with crops, game and fish, combined the knowledge, skills and skill of many tribes and peoples. For example, like the inhabitants of the taiga, they went hunting, collecting seafood souls, hunting marine animals as inhabitants of the north. The Ainuas strictly protected the secrets of mummification of the deceased and the recipe of the deadly poison, recovered from the root of the mixture, into which they drenched the ends of their arrows and harpoons. They knew that this poison was quickly decomposed into the body of a slaughtered animal and the meat could then be eaten.
Their instruments and weapons were very similar to those used by other communities of prehistoric people who lived in analogous climatic and geographic conditions. It is true that the Ainuas had one significant advantage, and it was obsidian, occurring abundantly in the Japanese islands. In its processing, it was possible to obtain far smoother edges than quartz, so that the spikes of the arrows and the axes of these people can be considered masterpieces of neolithic production.
The bows and arrows were the most important weapons. High levels have been achieved by the production of harpoons and fishing rods made from deer antlers. In short, their tools and weapons were typical of their time, and just a little unexpected, it turned out that those people who did not even know farming or cattle breeding lived in quite a few communities.
How many mysterious questions the culture of this nation has spawned! This ancient community created remarkably beautiful ceramics by modeling (without any tools for turning the dishes, and rather the pottery circle), which were decorated with an extraordinary rope ornament and their work is also mysterious dog statuettes (statues in the form of animals or in the form of a woman).
Everything was done by hand! Even so, the clay-clay products of jommon are a special place among primitive ceramics. Nowhere else is the contrast between polishing its ornament and ultra-primitive production technology as surprising as it is here. In addition, the Ainuas were almost the poorest farmers in the Far East.
And again the question! Why did they lose these skills and become hunters, basically doing a step back in their development? Why are the traits of different nations and the elements of a high and primitive culture intertwined in such a strange way?
As a naturally very musical nation, they loved entertainment and were able to enjoy themselves. They were carefully preparing for the holidays, the most important of which was the feast of the bear. This nation was celebrating everything around, but most worshiped the bear, snake and dog.
Although they at first glance at a primitive life, they gave the world the inimitable artwork, enriched the human culture of mythology and folklore that are nothing comparable. All their kind and way of life seem to reject the established ideas and the usual schemes of cultural development.
The Ain women had a tattoo smile on their faces. Culturologists think that the tradition of "painted smile" is one of the oldest in the world, and the leaders of this nation have been keeping it for too long. Notwithstanding all the bans on the part of the Japanese government, Ainu, even in the XX. century underwent this procedure. It is believed that the last "right" tattooed woman died in 1998.
Tattoos were performed exclusively by women and people of this nation were convinced that their ancestors had learned the rumor of all the alive Okikurumi Turesh Machi, the younger sister of the divine creator Okikurumi. This tradition was passed on the female line and the tattoo on the girl's body was done by her mother or grandmother.
During the "Japaneseization", 1799 was forbidden to the Ainu nation, and in 1871 to Hakkaido, the strict ban was restored because it was claimed that the procedure was too painful and inhumane.
For Ain, the tattoo was forbidden because they thought that in such a case the girl could not marry and after death die in the afterlife. It should be noted that the ceremony was really raw. For the first time, the girls were tattooed at the age of seven years, and later the "smile" over the years was illustrated. She was finished on the day she married.
In addition to the characteristic tattoo smile, it is possible to see on the hands of Ainu geometric patterns that served as amulets.
One word of mystery is growing more and more over time, but the answers still bring new problems. There is only one thing known, namely that life in the Far East has been extremely difficult and tragic. When in XVII. century Russian explorers reached the easternmost point of the Far East, before their eyes opened the endless majestic sea and numerous islands.
But more than the enchanting nature was overwhelmed by the native people. In front of the traveler, a crowd of thick beards, broad-eyed, reminiscent of the eyes of Europeans, with large protruding noses and resembling members of different races, appeared. Men from the regions of Russia, the Caucasus, the Gypsies, and only the Mongols, who were Cossacks and people serving in civil service, are accustomed to meet everywhere for Ural. Travelers have called them "Hungry Kurilts."
Testimonies about Aurian Curility were taken by Russian scientists from Cossack ataman Danil Ancyferov and Captain Ivan Kozyrevsky, in which they informed Peter I of the discovery of the Kuril Islands and the first meeting of Russian people with natives there.
This took place in 1711.
"They let the canoes dry and set off along the bank to the south. In the evening, they saw something like houses, or maybe they were more familiar (Evening designation for a conical tent with a wooden structure covered with skins or bark;). The weapons were ready for the shot, for who knows what kind of people they are, and they set out for them. About fifty people, dressed in fur, fired at them. They looked fearless and their appearance was very unusual. They were hairy, had long beards, but they were white because they had no slanting eyes like Jakuti and Kamchadal (the native inhabitants of Kamchatka, the Magadan region and the Čukotky; Note: transl.) ".
For a few days, the Far East benefactors, using the interpreter, tried to make the "rushing Kurilci" become the sovereign's sovereign, but they refused such honor and declared that they would not pay or pay anybody. The Cossacks have learned that the land they come to is an island, and that further islands lie on the south, and further afield Matmai (in the Russian documents of the 17th century, the island of Hokkaido is mentioned as Matmaj, Matsmaj, Matsumaj, Macmaj). and Japan.
Twenty-six years after Ancyfer and Kozyrev visited Kamčatka Stěpan Krašeninnikov. He left behind a classical work called Kamchatka Description, where, among other testimonies, he described in detail the characteristics of Aina as an ethnic type. It was the first scientific description of this tribe. A century later, in May 1811, there was a significant seaman, Vasili Golovnin.
The future admiral studied and described the nature of the islands and the daily lives of their inhabitants over the course of several months. His true and colorful talk about what he saw was highly valued by both the lovers of verbs and the scientific specialists. It is worth noting that such a detail was that Kuriec, named Alexei, who was from the Ainu tribe, served as a translator.
We do not know what he really was, but his destiny is one of many examples of the Russians' contact with the Kurilites who willingly taught Russian, adopted Orthodoxy, and made a good deal with our forefathers.
Kuril Ainu were, according to witnesses, very good, friendly and open people. The Europeans who visited the islands at different times have often boasted their culture and put high demands on the label, but they noticed the gallant ways that Aina was so characteristic of.
The Dutch seafarer de Fritz wrote: "Their behavior in relation to foreigners is so simple and sincere that educated and polite people would not be better off. In front of the strangers, they appeared in their best clothes, their greetings and wishes spell apologetically, while bending their heads. "
Maybe that kindness and openness did not allow the Aina to face the devastating influence of the people of the Great Country. Regression in their development occurred when they found themselves between two fires - from the south were oppressed by the Japanese, that the North then the Russians.
This ethnic branch of the Ainu kuril disappeared from the surface of the Earth. They currently live in several reserves in the south and southeast of the island of Hokkaido, in the valley of the Isikari River. Pure-blood Ainuas virtually died out or assimilated with Japanese and Nivsa. Now they are only sixteen thousand, and their numbers are falling sharply.
The existence of present Aina reminds remarkably of the image of the life of the ancient representatives of the Jomon Age. Their material culture has changed so little in the past few centuries that these changes need not be taken into account. They leave, but the burning secrets of the past continue to disturb and irritate, stimulate imagination, and nurture the inexhaustible interest in this remarkable, distinct, and no-like nation.